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K-mean algorithm is a typical cluster algorithm when you have numbers of classes to be clustered. More than that, k-mean is a basic algorithm which foster many semi-supervised cluster and flexible cluster algorithms. Recently, k-mean and its derivatives (hierarchical k-mean, approximate k-mean, etc.) dominated the algorithm of visual word discovery. However, k-mean algorithm is a dead way when you try to reach higher accuracy.

K-mean algorithm only applys to simple linear space. At least, in a space with following properties: continuous, defined operators of plus and multiply. The basic definitions only make k-mean executable. K-mean algorithm also implies that the space is isotropic in every direction.

It is a strict assumption k-mean needed. In fact, most manually generated data to test k-mean are in Euclidean space which is well-known for its poor performance in high dimensional circumstance. And unfortunately, most real world problems lay in high dimensional space which we can hardly prove it is linear or has a center.

An ideal cluster algorithm should:

  1. Resist to pseudo-random trap;
  2. With minimum assumption, like only define the distance between each sample;
  3. Executed in reasonable time, better than or at least equal to O(M*N), where M is the number of classes, N is the number of samples.
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